P2P mediastream

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Showcase of P2P HLS streaming using WebTorrent

This project is a Proof-of-Concept about how to distribute HLS streams in a P2P way using WebTorrent. This is not a replacement of using a HLS stream server, but instead complements them to reduce server costs by offloading server bandwidth usage to the peers.

Why to use this

HTTP Live Streaming is based on the HLS clients doing plain GET HTTP requests of stream fragments. These ones doesn't change over time, so it's possible to use "fragment" files on a CDN or a static web server instead of a regular one and reduce costs. But also in that case, all requests will go to them and there will be network costs. By taking a P2P aproach, it's possible to serve these fragment files the same way any P2P filesharing application would do, reducing network costs by fetching them from other users that have already got them. In this case, the P2P protocol being used is BitTorrent, and more specifically the WebTorrent implementation, that allow to use it in web browsers.


This proof-of-concept has five diferenciated components:

  • test card generator: a script that generates a HLS stream using ffmpeg, and it's used as stream source only for testing and demoing purposses. It store the HLS stream fragment files in the hls/ folder and automatically deletes the old ones.
  • static HTTP server: used to serve both the webpage content and the HLS stream fragments.
  • WebTorrent tracker: used to interconnect the WebTorrent clients, and due to that, internally it's also working as WebRTC signaling server too. By default it use the tracker from OpenWebTorrent, but here we are using instead a instance of wt-tracker. I've modified it to also work as static HTTP server so it can serve too the WebTorrent client code and work as HLS streams server.
  • STUN servers: used to find clients public IPs, by default using the Google public servers, but here I'm using my own ones. There's no need of using TURN servers since in case a direct WebRTC connection is not possible, using a TURN server would only add delays and extra costs compared to using a standard HLS streaming, so instead clients will fetch fragment files directly from the HLS pstream server automatically as fallback.
  • WebTorrent client: powered by P2P Media Loader, it manages both the fetch and processing of the HLS stream from the P2P network, being fully automated. It supports working with both hls.js library (only HLS) and Shaka Player (both HLS and DASH), and it also works with their derivatives, although this proof-of-concept is making use only of the first one.

How it works

For testing purposes, stream is just a video test card, being the generator script available at scripts/generate-video.sh.

P2P Media Loader starts downloading the stream fragments from the HLS stream, that's using a HTTP server or a CDN. At the same time, it connects to the WebTorrent tracker using WebSockets to exchange the WebRTC SDPs to create connections with the other peers, and start using the BitTorrent protocol to find other peers and ask for missing stream fragments. In case a P2P connection can't be stablished, or no one of the other peers has the missing fragments, they will still be fetched using regular HLS instead.

When the playing of the HLS stream starts, it first pick the stream fragments from the HTTP server or CDN, and at the same time, it ask in advance for other stream fragments to other peers in the WebTorrent network. The P2P management and transmission is fully done on client side, so it's transparent to the HLS streams used as source.

How to use

wt-tracker needs to be configured first, so run it with:

docker run \
  -p 49199
  -v "$(pwd)"/config.json:/app/config.json:ro \

config.json file must have a content similar to:

        "host": "",
        "port": 49199
        "compression": 1,
        "idleTimeout": 240,
        "maxConnections": 0,
        "maxPayloadLength": 65536,
        "path": "/*"
    "announceInterval": 120,
    "maxOffers": 20

For more configuration details and customization, take a look on wt-tracker configuration.

After installing, npm start will start the wt-tracker instance and serve the client. To run instead the test card generator and a development build of the client, just exec npm run dev instead. In addition to that, a couple of systemd service files are included, one for the wt-tracker and another for the test card generator. Just enable them and you are ready to go.


The <video> tag of this PoC has both the autoplay and muted attributes because since Chrome 66, videos with sound are prevented to autoplay by default to prevent annoy users. You can find more info at https://stackoverflow.com/a/49822987/586382 and https://developers.google.com/web/updates/2017/09/autoplay-policy-changes.

Video test card is using lavfi, the Libavfilter input virtual device. More specifically, it's using the testsrc filter. For example, to create a 10 seconds 1280x720px video at 30fps, just only exec:

ffmpeg -f lavfi -i testsrc=duration=10:size=1280x720:rate=30 testsrc.mpg

License: Apache License 2.0